Case study scenario:
You are caring for Sarah Smith, a 36-year -old female in the respiratory ward in a large metropolitan hospital.
Sarah presented to the Emergency department yesterday with a 3-day history of increasing shortness of breath, a productive cough, and a fever. On examination, Sarah has decreased air entry and the presence of coarse crackles in the middle-left thorax. A chest X-Ray confirms consolidation in the middle-left lobe. Blood cultures and sputum cultures confirm that Sarah has Community- Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). The Covid-19 PCR test is negative, and Influenza PCR is pending.
Temperature 39.2° C
Pulse rate 100 beats/minute Respiratory rate 28 breaths/min Blood pressure 110/60 mm Hg
SpO2 92 with 2 L oxygen via nasal prongs GCS 14
A peripherally inserted intravenous catheter (PIVC) L) hand with Normal Saline 1000mls @ 125mls/hour
Urine output 350mls for the last 12 hours, orange in colour.